Islamic Calligraphies Part 3 - Elements of the Structural Rules of Calligraphy
In classical Arabic calligraphy, the independent proportions of the letters can be traced back to 3 important basic elements: the dot, the Alif, and the circle.
The base unit is the point:
The dot is not rounded but rectangular in shape, the dot itself is determined by the characteristics of the writing tool, i.e. the pen, as it is created by pressing the tip of the pen onto the surface of the paper. Thus, given that its dimensions and shape depend on the size and cut of the pen used.
(the first letter of the Arabic alphabet) This is the regulator and basis of all calligraphic systems.
Its width is always 1 point wide, but its length can vary from type to type (e.g., in Nehsi writing, the height of the alif is 5 points, and in Thuluth (Sulus) writing is 9 points).
The third unit of the circle:
The circle determines the size and spelling of all other letters. It is a circle that can be drawn around the alif as a diameter, and this circle indicates the radius within which each letter must align.
The basic principle, then, is that after considering the 3 basic elements, the calligrapher determines the size of each letter in relation to the point alipha and the circle, its territorial units, dimensions, curvatures, (this is different for each type of writing!) And these symmetries and proportions, throughout the text, it retains.
The system of all these editorial principles is fully established by the 10th century - according to Arab tradition, the first six writings were created by the renowned Arab calligrapher IBN MULKA, which has only been refined and corrected over the generations, but these are just myths.
The reality, on the other hand, is that Ibn Mulka was the famous calligrapher who consolidated the established practice into a unified system and, by further developing the existing traditions, created the dynamic editing rules. That is, he created the predecessor of today's modern calligraphy ...
Later, these basic elements, proportions, dimensions, and geometric shapes came to life by the fact that the whole writing took on a kind of unique rhythm that applied only to a particular type of writing (Duktus), possibly to the scribe himself, or to a given piece of writing. , will be typical.
The shapes that became pure geometric (Arabesque) sometimes decorated the writing, sometimes the writing itself became Arabesque, especially in the case of calligraphy used in architecture.
When As Sul was asked by the scribes how to describe true calligraphy, he replied
"The parts of it are in proportion, Alif's and Lam's are long, the line is straight, rising, making a similar angle to its descent. Its paperwork is clear. It seems that the writing is made with a soul, it is eye-catching. , its lines are proportional, its curvatures are rounded, its teeth are small, its hollow parts are open, the whole thing seems to move, although it is motionless this real calligraphy "
That concludes my lines too.
Although this material was a bit dry, it is important to understand the rest of the sections because there are very important editing ratios in calligraphy, not just drawing. Each job is preceded by very serious planning.
But in the end, it always surpasses everything when work is done for the Glory of Allah. Amen.