Islamic Calligraphies Part 4 - Types of Kufic Writing
It is not easy to navigate between different Arabic calligraphic styles or types, as the same types or styles can be found under different names in different ages and places (there was no internet at the time).
Some of them also died out over time, giving way to newer combinations, so that's why it's hard to find your way around.
Types of writing:
"The first writing that enlightened the vision of understanding people with Divine revelation, and that brought God's prohibitions and commandments to the people, was the Kufic writing."
No one could be more beautiful, and better, not written in Kufic writing than Ali (may the blessing of Allah be upon him) and the most excellent Kufic writing memories can be traced back to Ali. During the development of Kufic writing, from its initial rigid forms, it increasingly moved toward over-decoration and illegibility, until eventually even the most extreme forms of writing emerged within this very type of writing. Kufic's writing, on the other hand, was: It was well suited to be written into special geometric shapes, or to form geometric shapes from the writing itself, so its later use came into close contact with the Arabesques as decorative elements.
There are at least 7 variations to be distinguished within Kufic writing, but I will only discuss the 4 main ones here:
The first and oldest is Western Kufic, which was the very first Kufic writing. Simple and yet beautiful, it has been difficult to understand since the points are not always used.
Here is Al-Fatiha (The Opening) with this type of writing:
The second, which is already a more advanced version of this, is the Eastern Kufic, where the letters are more elongated, the sentences are more articulated, and the scoring also comes up, helping to make it easier to understand.
The Al-Ikhlasz Surah in this beautiful font:
The third - and at the same time the most beautiful Kufic writing that has ever been developed, thank Allah (that’s just my opinion) - is the ornamental Kufic. Here are the shapes and the figures
infinite versions can be observed. This writing was not only combined with Arabesque but was where and when the writing itself served as Arabesque.
Here is a very nice example of this writing, decorated with leaf motifs:
Finally, the fourth form of writing I have described is the angular Kufic writing. This is one of the latest forms of writing, the development of which was most likely influenced by Chinese writing, each feature of which must be imagined in a theoretical square.
And again, I quote the Al-Ikhlasz stab with this angular type of writing:
Besides, of course, there are other versions, but they are some improved versions of these four, which of course are no less beautiful, but I thought I had enough to describe the main types of writing :)
One more thing I would like to say a few words about at the beginning:
The quote I use the most with all types of writing is Al-Fatiha and Al-Ikhlasz stabs. How I measured these two stabs, I don’t even know myself, maybe because of their essence and their beauty. Of course, as you can see here, I quote Qur'an and Sunnah texts from elsewhere.
Today I close my lines with this.
Allah bless you.