Islamic Calligraphy Part 5 - The Naskh Writing
Last time we took the cone writing, now comes the next big group, although I wouldn’t call these types of writing a definite group, but rather actually a lineage.
The naskh (or in Turkish neskh writing.)
It used to be the opinion, in more prominent circles, that this writing is from the Kufic writing, but this is not the case. The so-called neshi, (or copier writing) in its own rounded style, already
it was known in the 7th century, which then underwent changes in the time of Ibn Mukla in the 10th century and marked by His name, and remains in its present form. The Qur’anic codes are still copied in Kufic writing until the 12th century.
Neshi writing reached its highlight in the late 12th century, when the Holy Quran was already being copied with this writing instead of Kufic writing. Then later on decorations, buildings, everywhere
takes the place of Kufic writing.
Here is a nice example of this writing:
Several versions of this writing have also emerged, including the sulus writing. This is the writing I mentioned at the beginning because it was developed for the eight-point alif. Stretchy and graceful writing. The aforementioned master, Ibn Mukla, was also involved in its development. The writing is strongly rounded, the tip of its pen is cut obliquely.
It was used for the beginning lines of chapters of the Qur'an, the titles of books, the titles of chapters, subchapters. This writing is often in gilded form.
A nice example of this is:
Al Ikhlas Surah
The next writing , Muhaqqaq writing
The great calligraphers of the 10th - 12th centuries: Ibn Mukla, Ibn Bawab, Ibn Yaku, were formed and perfected from the writings of Neshi and Thuluth. So this writing is even more special, as as a third version of the former two types of writing, it also ran its own career, later becoming very popular among Quranic copiers as well.
But let's look at an example of this, also in the Al Ikhkas surah:
These three belong to the main large group, but in addition to these we must mention another type of writing which was also very popular and this is Gubar writing (also known as dust grain writing).
Because it was made of tiny, barely visible letters, used primarily in pigeon mail letters, its development is named after the calligraphic master Al Nahval.
Later miniature copies of the Qur’an were also made with this writing.
A nice example of this:
In this group of writing, the main writing ducts are, of course, the line is not over with these four, different mixed types, they have appeared in different ages. I would omit to list them now as we only take the major types.
Today I close my lines,
Allah bless you.